Monday, 3 June 2013

Reiki Second Degree



          “  No man was ever wise by chance.”



First degree Reiki is the beginning of an exciting and profound journey filled with self discovery, personal change, love, growth, new experiences and an immeasurable sense of bonding with a higher power. It takes most people from a position of scepticism and propels them into a new understanding of life. Reiki opens up doors to new dimensions ,to things we never dreamt possible, and gives us access to the purest unconditional love available. Reiki is pure energy; it is omnipresent, omnipotent and omniscient. Reiki is available to all who wish to tap into it, accept it, and become one with its energy and wisdom. Words cannot adequately describe Reiki, it needs to be experienced. Every person experiences Reiki in different ways, which is why it is impossible to define Reiki clearly in words. Whether you experience Reiki as a treatment from a Reiki practitioner or by attending a workshop, it will change your life for the better if you are open to the energy and allow it to envelop your mind, body and spirit.

              “ What is healing, but a shift in perspectives? "

                                                                                     -Mark Doty


Reiki II is the level where you are taught the first three symbols (power, distance, and
emotional/mental symbols). With this comes the skill of being able to focus healing on
mental and emotional problems, and distant healing those not physically present.
Reiki II is the next exciting step in learning to use Reiki. It is commonly reported that
with Reiki II comes an increase in the Reiki energy. The Level II Attunement is an initiation into the healing symbols of Reiki that enables a person to use the Level II symbols. The symbols do not represent separate energies, but a specific method of focusing on a specific aspect of the Reiki energy. The symbols allow a convenient point of focus.


           “Healing is simply attempting to do more of those things that bring

Joy and fewer of those things that bring pain. “
                                                                                                -O. Carl Simonton

It is almost impossible to explain how second degree Reiki actually works in a way that everyone can understand and accept it. To try to scientifically and logically grasp how the universal life force functions is beyond human intelligence. Like so many things in life, although we do not fully understand how they work we still use them to improve our lives. Many people would find it extremely difficult to explain how electricity, televisions, faxes, computers, telephones and microwaves or the internet works for example. However, not being able to comprehend how they work doesn’t stop people using them. Likewise, although no-one can completely explain how Reiki works it shouldn’t stop you using and trusting in its ability to improve your life and the lives of the people you work with. When you study, experience and work with the teachings and techniques of the second degree you will be able to make your own judgement on how you feel it works. Alternatively you could simply do what we recommend and just believe in its infinitive wisdom and let go of any doubts and fears. However, for those who wish a brief insight into the second degree we will attempt to justly explain our own understanding of how the  second degree works.

In second degree when we draw the first symbol Hon Sha Ze Sho Nen , the universal life force energy directly descends down to the healer’s heart chakra and forms a bridge between the healer’s heart chakra and the receiver’s heart chakra. So Reiki can be transferred from the healer to the patient easily. The second symbol Sei He Ki clears away all the blockages and dispels the dirty diseased energy present in the aura of the patient. The third symbol Cho Ku Rei is the power symbol. It amplifies the contained energy to a large extent and helps in its transference from the healer to the patient.                                                                                                                                                      


Reiki is omnipresent-present everywhere at the same time.
Reiki is omnipotent-absolute and infinite power.
Reiki is omniscient-infinite wisdom and knowledge.

The universal life force connects all living things together like a vast ocean. As droplets in this ocean we are communicating with and are connected to, all other droplets in this ocean on an unconscious level. Similarly, every cell in the human body has its own individual position and responsibility. However, each cell is also connected to and is unconsciously communicating with all the other fifty-trillion cells in the body. Deepak Chopra, in his book Quantum Healing also talks about how the entire universe is connected. He explains how particles that are separated by immense distances of time and space know what one another are doing. Each particle in our universe has an intelligence that communicates across time and space.

 Scientists studying the behaviour of monkeys on the coast of Japan noticed one day a particular monkey had begun dipping his sweet potatoes into salt water before eating them. Shortly afterwards they found all the monkeys within the colony were also dipping their potatoes into salt water. The scientist assumed the monkeys were just copying each other until they discovered monkeys in other parts of the world had begun dipping their potatoes into salt water also. The monkeys were communicating through an unknown intelligence across time and space. The scientists labeled this intelligent communication Morphic Resonance. Interestingly another study found when giraffes began causing serious damage to trees by eating more of the tree than normal, the trees responded by increasing the amount of tannin in their leaves. This defensive action made the leaves too bitter for the giraffes to eat. Scientists discovered the trees were communicating with gases — an energy with intelligence. Likewise, Reiki is also energy with intelligence.


                    “Natural forces within us are the healers of disease.”
-         Hippocrates

The symbols are a very special, unique and important part of Reiki that help the Reiki Practitioner connect more effectively to the Universal Life Force. They are the keys that unlock the flow of Reiki and enhance and amplify the universal life force. You can of course access the Reiki energy without the symbols, as taught in the first degree. However the Sacred Reiki Symbols are very important and can be harnessed by the Practitioner to strengthen and focus the reiki energy during a treatment session. The symbols are the essence and formula of Reiki. They are the keys to using and passing on this healing system. All things profound and life-affirming are simple , and Reiki is an extremely simple method comprised essentially of the symbols. They are the formula Mikao Usui found in the Sutras. Three are taught in Reiki II and two more in Third Degree. The symbols are readily known in Buddhism, where they are not secret or withheld information. There symbols have always been considered sacred and secret and should not be discussed with Reiki I therapists or with non-Reiki people as outside of Reiki II they hold no meaning. It is important to remember that just like the Reiki Energy; the Reiki Symbols cannot do any harm. They can only be used for good. During the attunement ceremony, the Reiki master uses the symbols to transfer and link the sacred symbols with the Reiki energy and the student; so the student from that point forward can either consciously or unconsciously draw upon this new amplified Reiki energy  quickly and easily to treat themselves and/or others in the future

 Once the second degree Usui Reiki student has studied and assimilated the first three Reiki symbols, their healing abilities are immediately heightened. Without the second degree attunement however, the symbols will not work and are worthless. Mikao Usui originally taught Reiki without the use of symbols. However, he introduced them after a while to help his students better understand and more easily connect to the Reiki energy. Dr. Hayashi and Madam Takata both use symbols when they taught Reiki to others. The Reiki symbols are now an integral part of studying Reiki and are a very important part of the attunement ceremony. The four symbols were found in the Sanskrit sutras by Dr Usui. He realised during his time of fasting and meditation on Mount Kurayama that these esoteric symbols would enable him and others to be finely tuned into Reiki, just like tuning a television or radio signal. The symbols were the tools he needed to focus the Reiki energy, enabling him and others to bridge the gap between the healer and the recipient, across which the universal life force could be drawn and sent as necessary. These sacred symbols are also for self healing. They dissolve old destructive patterns, and increase the intuitive abilities of the student, while raising their conscious awareness and peace of mind to a new height.
Transcendental by nature, the Reiki symbols connect the practitioner and the recipient directly to the higher self or higher consciousness-the Rei.

The symbols are similar to  energy transformers they boost and expand the energy field. When a symbol is drawn or visualised in the outer realm it becomes a mirror image of another symbol on an inner realm. Simultaneously a It is vitally important that at the moment of drawing the symbols the intention of the Reiki practitioner is absolutely clear and positive. Visualise or imagine the symbol as a live energy. Man can see that energy as a white light. The symbols can be drawn mentally and transferred from the Reiki practitioner’s third eye on to the various chakra and hand positions on the recipients’ body. Some Reiki practitioners draw the symbols on the roof of their mouth with their tongue before transferring the symbols to a recipient. While other Reiki practitioners simply draw the symbols on their hands or the bodies of the recipient. If you are going to draw them, ensure no-one sees them. Connection occurs which has ramifications on all levels — inner and outer.



“There is nothing quite so satisfying, and so healing, as a good cry.”

                                                                                                        - Leo Buscaglia

Hon -  The center, the essence, the source, the beginning, the start out of itself.

Sha -  Shining.

Ze -    To walk in the right direction.

Sho -  The goal, aim, honest being.

Nen -  Silence, to be open in the deepest of your nature.

The purpose of this symbol is to bring down the energy into the heart chakra and open the mind so that Reiki can operate beyond time and space. It acts as a bridge for energy to flow. This is the symbol with the most variations and versions, perhaps because of its complexity to remember and draw. Like the other Reiki symbols, it is written in Japanese and meant to transmit a picture. The Hon Sha Ze Sho Nen appears in the shape of a tall pyramid, and resembles the human body. It is also in English as “ The Pagoda”, but the older “ Stupa”- a Tantric Buddhist representation of the charkas or five elements in statue or building form- is probably more correct. The symbol spells a sentence that translates to mean, “ No past, no present, no future.”

Most healers are taught that this symbol is for distant healing. This is true, but is just the beginning of the uses of this very powerful figure. It is the energy that transmits Reiki healing across distance, time and space. It is always used in distance and absentee healing, and is also used in healing in a hands-on way- both for others and for oneself. The most intensive use of the symbol is in direct healing sessions. In scope, this is the most powerful and complex of the Reiki II energy keys and perhaps of any of the Reiki III symbols as well. The Hon Sha Ze Sho Nen is also an entrance into the Akashik Records, the life records of each soul, and therefore its most important use is in healing Karma. The Akashik Records describe the karmic goals, debts, contracts and life purpose of each each soul’s many incarnations, including the present lifetime. By the use of this symbol in healing, present life traumas can be reprogrammed so that they literally change the future. Past life patterns can be uncovered and released, and karmik debts resolved. All of this happens in direct hands-on healing sessions, usually in a series of healings. This method can be used for self-healing as well.

The Hon Sha Ze Sho Nen works with the conscious mind, the mental body, rather than the sub-conscious that is the focus of Sei He Ki, and is therefore the next step in the process.
Some of its other uses include-

works on deep seated diseases.
works on long standing problems.
channels Reiki to a person in another country.
channels Reiki to someone in hospital.
works on groups or large organisations.
works on towns, cities and countries.
channels Reiki to disaster or crisis situations.
channels Reiki to world leaders.
works on driving tests and examinations.
works on interviews and meetings.
works on karmic past life issues.
works on children while they sleep or rest.
helps treat patients with burns who cannot be touched or where there is a risk of
infection through touch.
heals the inner child.
heals the past present and future.
works on world peace.

You are only limited by your imagination. Believe and succeed.


             “The last place we tend to look for healing is within ourselves.”

                                              -- Wayne Muller

                                   (GOD AND HUMANITY BECOME ONE.)

Sei -       State of embriyo, things which are invisible, source of external form.

He Ki -  Root chakra to be balanced.

The second symbol is called Sei He Ki. Its pronounced "say hay key". This smbol known as the mental/emotional symbol, but also as the harmony symbol. It is used to heal mental and emotional habits that no longer work for you, and emotional and mental distress. It is also used to bring  up and heal the emotional issues underneath physical problems. It helps reinforce and support positive behavior changes. It is also used to help release negative conditioning from past experiences by changing reacting to responding. Buddhists believe that ego is conditioning. The Zen sages knew that to be free of suffering was to end desire. It was only by removing the conditionings of life (ego), that one could be free and experience harmony and oneness. This symbol is for healing and releasing those feelings, desires and conditionings. It is also known as the Harmony Symbol. Healing with the Sei He Ki can be as simple as using the symbol while doing a healing using the regular hand positions. It can also be used as part of an emotional meditation to help release and heal these conditionings and patterns that underlie problems.

Sei He Ki generates a higher frequency energy than Cho Ku Rei, and is used to
balance the mental and emotional planes. Usui's surviving students describe this energy as celestial energy, an energy that makes a link with the spiritual, drawing the two energies into harmony.
When the symbol is drawn over the body, the effect is twofold:
1. the symbol boosts the flow of energy through your hands
2. the symbol gears the energy towards mental balancing and emotional release
The effects of Sei He Ki are less noticeable to your hands, because they resonate at a
higher frequency than Cho Ku Rei, and the energy feels more fine and delicate; but it
is still as strong. The effects that Sei He Ki produces are wide-ranging. The symbol will deal with stress, tension, anxiety, sleeplessness, restlessness and traumas. It will help a person to deal
with anger, heal sorrow and release emotional blocks, and resolves deep-seated
emotional problems: unresolved issues that grind away in the background without
being dealt with. The symbol can also be used to modify and improve habits and
personality traits.

In practice, SeiHeKi can be drawn over these areas:
solar plexus
These are the main mental areas and the main emotional centres. In Traditional Chinese Medicine various emotions are seen as being held in particular organs. For example, anger is held in the Liver, fear is held in the Kidneys, grief is held in the Lungs, joy is held in the Heart and sympathy is held in the Spleen. So one could conceivably use energy from Sei He Ki in these areas to deal with these specific emotions, or imbalances associated with them. Here are some more uses for the Mental/Emotional symbol. The Sei He Ki.

Some of These suggestions were offered by Jane Berrigan, Fiona Mc Callum, Susan Bosco and C.J. Use the emotional symbol in the chakras with the intent that emotional and mental issues be balanced and healed. if the treatment is specifically for emotional/mental issues), end by wrapping the recipient in Reiki and seal it with the SHK, too. Recipients will often report a feeling of lightness and a lifting of despair and stress. You may want to use the HSZSN too, since many emotional issues have roots from the recipient's past. If you are feeling 'out of balance' all you have to do is to place your hands on your head and think of the SHK and it will tend to bring you back into balance. This symbol heals more on the higher levels of consciousness, and is thought to work more in the aura field than on the physical body. If a person is complaining even of a headache often it is coming from some type of emotional or mental tension, so using the SHK symbol is appropriate in dissipating headaches. SHK can also be used for getting rid of 'bad vibes' and for protection. Bad vibes or negativity coming from others or perceived as coming from others exists on a mental and emotional level so you can use the symbol as a form of psychic protection. What you can do is simply draw this symbol around yourself, perhaps saying something like ''I protect myself now with divine love and wisdom''. Use the symbol on each side of you, behind, above, below you and in front of you, and repeat the words. As you do so, you should feel the protective energy begin to develop around you. It will tend to harmonize any negative vibrations that will be coming from others. You can use the SHK and the CKR for spiritual protection. Another way to give yourself protection is to visualize an egg shaped energy
field around you with the SHK moving around the surface of the egg, starting at your feet
and working its way around the egg and upwards until it reaches the top of your head. Do
the same with the CKR. Often at work or even at home we deal with people who we like to
think of as our friends but sometimes there are negative feelings that come up and it is very
valuable to be able to protect our selves and harmonize the situation by using Reiki.
You can use the SHK to assist with memory. If you have forgotten something, your keys for
instance, take a moment and place your hands on top of your head and use SHK there. As
you do the Reiki say to yourself 3 times ''I will remember where I placed my keys within one
minute''. Then just relax. Sometimes using Reiki in this way will help you conscious mind
to align itself to that memory, causing you to remember just where you placed your keys!!
Worth a try anyway! It can work equally well for other things you have forgotten - a person's
name, a telephone no. etc. Often you are trying too hard to remember and the Reiki energy
will simply help you to relax so that the information will surface again.

Students can use this symbol when taking tests or exams. Before the test draw the SHK
over the paper to help your mind to attune to the correct answers. Of course it goes without
saying that you must have studied beforehand! Reiki will help your conscious mind access
the correct piece of information from all the data held in your brain. Use it when that extra
concentration is needed and you are feeling bored in class. Place your hands on your
knees and think of the SHK as you listen to the tutor and it will help you to retain the
information being given. Affirmations are a powerful tool when one is trying to achieve
goals. You can simply repeat a positive phrase over again in your mind or write it on a piece
of paper. Repetition is the key and the SHK can be used to empower your affirmations. In
this way they tend to be more deeply embedded in the subconscious mind. Any time you are having an argument or disagreement, it can be very healthy and valuable
to use the SHK. Just imagine the symbol being between you and the person you are having
the argument with. It will tend to filter the energy that passes between you, thereby assisting you in creating harmony and peace and understanding.


“Most people live, whether physically, intellectually or morally, in a very restricted circle of their potential being. They make use of a very small portion of their possible consciousness, and of their soul’s resources in general, much like a man who, out of his whole bodily organism, should get into a habit of using and moving only his little finger. Great emergencies and crises show us how much greater our vital resources are than we had supposed.”
                                                                                                    – William James

                                               ( TO BRING THE POWER HERE. )

Cho- Curved sword (sickle which draws a curved line).

Ku  - To enter into something and produce wholeness, to produce space where nothing exists.

Rei – Spiral, essence, mystic power, that which is not explainable.

(cho koo ray) (long o in cho ) is the Usui power boost mantra and symbol to increase the
effect of Reiki. This function is said to call in higher universal energy and accelerates Reiki
from low to high and gives greater focus to the energy. Power boost is used with the other
energies as well as by itself during all treatments hands on or distance. This energy has
been used to clear rooms and crystals and to charge food and water, and in manifestation
procedures. This symbol has been used as a sort of Good Luck charm or "blessing pump"
and as a protective sign. The symbol shown is with the counterclockwise spiral which is the
traditional direction some teachers have apparently arbitrarily changed the direction of the
spiral to clockwise for reasons of personal spiritual tradition either symbol will work use
what is most comfortable to you the number of times that the spiral crosses the center line
varies from four to six in different teachers renderings. most people use symbol as they
were taught by their own teacher.

The Cho Ku Rei symbol can help start Reiki flowing or give it a feeling of being more finely
tuned or powerful. Most practitioners use it at the beginning of sessions by drawing it on
the palms of their hands, drawing it with the third eye or with the tongue on the roof of their
mouth or by mentaly visualiizing the symbol on or over the body or the person being
treated. This Reiki function is used for activating and enhancing energy, focusing, stabilizing and
fixing the energy for clearing, cleansing, recharging, revitalizing and general healing. It is
also used for improving the physical or material energy state. This fuction helps align
human energy with the natural rythyms of The Earth.

This  symbol is often called Focus or Power symbol or Booster. The Cho Ku Rei is
sometimes nicknamed "the light switch" as it connects us to the energy, like a light switch
being turned on. It is thought to turn up the energy, and opens us as channels of the Reiki
energy. It can help overcome negative resistance patterns. It can help reduce pain.
Cho Ku Rei is also used in space clearing. To cleanse a room, draw or visualize Cho Ku Rei
in the corners or on the walls, floor and ceiling of a room. While intending that the room be
cleansed and filled with energies of love and compassion. Mentally throw Cho Ku Rei into
the room while intending the room be filled with light. Many people do this in the treatment
area before doing treatments or Attunements.

Draw Cho Ku Rei on objects in your environment while you intend that they be cleansed
and operate for your highest good. Draw the symbol on objects and run Reiki into them to
charge them with Reiki. Cho Ku Rei can be used in almost as many ways as you can think
up. You can use the Cho Ku Rei at the start of a healing session to feel the energetic
connection to the Reiki source. You can use it to focus power at each hand position and on
any problem areas. You could draw it over the person at the end of a healing session to
seal and stabilize the healing.

Some people also use Cho Ku Rei for protection. For protection, draw the symbol on a
piece of paper and place it on or under things you want filled with Reiki or mentally visualize
or invoke it. You can visualize or imagine the Symbol surrounding you. Draw the symbol in
front and in back over and on both sides of yourself. Draw it over food and water before
you eat and drink. You can also visualize or draw it over your head before meditation or
meditate on the symbols themselves. Draw the Cho Ku Rei on the shower head prior to taking a shower so that the water is filled with Reiki as it cleanses you. Run Reiki into your bath water.

To use Cho Ku Rei for manifestation you can activate Cho Ku Rei and clearly visualize what
you intend to manifest while running Reiki. This will not bring you things that are not in
accord with your high self and soul purpose. Experiment ! When doing any manifestation
procedure You must focus on the positive form of your intended manifestation. After cleansing crystals you can use the power symbol to empower them instead of a generator crystal especially if you use crystals a lot on grids for doing multiple sends. This is different than traditional crystal clearing and charging methods Always shampoo and other personal care items.
Draw it on a piece of paper and wrap it around a sick tree to keep the energy working.
Draw it over food before cooking and eating..
meditate to confirm that the work you wish to do with the crystal is in accord with the natural purpose and desire of the Crystal. When you find your energy flagging and have little time for a self treatment, draw the power symbol down your body and give yourself a 5 minute zap.
Draw it on the palm of each hand before before sending distant healing.
Draw it into the corners of any rooms that need clearing.


The second degree attunement enables us to tap higher dimensions of energy from the universe. So, a participant can do distant healing more effectively.

Techniques of using second degree reiki

“Before healing others, heal yourself .“




1. You can use a photo or drawing as a focus. for the session drawing the symbols over a
photo with the intention of sending Reiki to the person represented or sting the name of the
person while placing your hands on a drawing either doing the hand placements or just
holding the photo or drawing.

2. direct the energies by imagining the person as laying on your thigh.

3. Use a teddy bear or doll as a proxy or put a pillow on your lap to represent the recipient.

4. You can imagine the person as being between your hands. Then either mentally go
through the hand positions or just send the Reiki to the subjects entire being with the
intention that it go where needed.

5. Intend it. know that the Reiki will reach your intended recipient automatically.

6. Write the person's name on a piece of paper and hold that piece of paper with the name
on it between your hands and send Reiki that way.

7. Use your thumb as a proxy, pretend it is the person, and wrap your other fingers around
it and send it Reiki.


There are two basic ways of using visualisation to perform absent or distance healing. The first
involves visualising or imagining the person you wish to treat with Reiki. For example, let’s assume you want to treat a close friend who is in hospital. Close your eyes and make your invocation. Repeat your friends name three times to focus your mind and establish a connection between yourself and your friend in hospital. Transport your friend from the hospital and visualise or imagine them in a miniature form resting in the palms of your hands. Open your eyes and project the symbols from your third eye onto your friend resting in the palms of your hands. Alternatively, you can place your friend in one hand and draw the symbols over your
friend with the other hand. Remember to intone the words three times and add the rider should it be for the highest good. Gently cup your hands together. Keep your hands close for five to ten minutes or until you intuitively feel the treatment is complete. Open your hands and visualise or imagine your friend making a full recovery. Visualise or imagine a healing light enveloping your friend. Close your eyes and transport your friend back to the hospital. Say goodbye leaving the healing light with them to continue and complete the healing process. Complete the treatment by thanking the universal life force and make sure to wash your hands in cold running water.



 “Inspiration usually comes during work, rather than before it.”

Meditation using the Reiki Symbols is a hybrid of meditation and visualization It is designed
to increase the connection to the Reiki source by meditating on the symbols. you can easily
fashion your own meditation on the symbols, visualizing the symbols or even gazing on a
physical drawing of one of the symbols. Experiment and explore. To do this meditation, use guidelines that anyone doing meditation of any sort might follow. Get into a comfortable position. Sit with your spine erect. Put your hands on your lap and have your feet on the floor. Relax the body doing some deep breathing, or muscular relaxation can sometimes help.
As with all meditation, if your mind wanders while meditating, allow the thoughts to slip
away, paying them no mind, and gently bring your attention back to your focus. breathe
deeply shut your eyes or keep them half open focus on the feeling of Reiki. when you are                          ready, you can begin to meditate on the symbols. (or any other focus) to this point its a
standard meditation. The first symbol we will use is the power symbol. Either draw it in front
of you or visualize it in your mind. Say the name of the symbol (either out loud or in your
head). You could visualize the symbol as golden, or violet, or allow it to take on the color it
chooses, intensely bright and empowered with the loving energy of the Reiki source. Allow
it to flow into you, and for any message it might have for you to manifest. Stay focused on
the symbol and the Reiki flow and the source. Stay with this as long as you feel
comfortable. When you are ready, you can do the same with the other symbols. You can so
the meditation with all symbols in one setting, or only work with one symbol per session.
When you are finished you are likely to be filled with energy and this would be a good time
to work on doing self treatments, treating others, doing distant healing, manifesting goals,
charging crystals.


If you are not grounded, you might find yourself light headed and dizzy after meditation. I
just run Reiki with the intention that I be grounded. You can find something that is
grounding and do it. Things like gardening or walking you can visualize roots or a cord
running to the center of the earth or a lava flow coming connecting you to the Earth.
Whatever works for you. You could also put your tongue on the soft palate (just behind the
teeth), draw the power symbol on the feet, the hara (just below the naval) and the palms.
Place your palms on the hara and concentrate on that area for a few minutes. This tends to
bring the excess energy from the upper chakras and into the hara. Many people like to eat
something as a way of grounding.


 “The most important thing in life is to learn how to give out love,
and to let it come in. “
                                                                                                              - Morrie Schwartz

 Reiki Level II is all about bringing harmony and peace into our inner world of
emotions and mental attitudes. It also helps us to be better at expressing who we
really are. The Symbols are gifts of protection, compassion and wisdom that allow us
to do this wok in ways that are fun, nurturing and lasting. Use the Symbols on
yourself, and others around you every day. For at least the first 21 days after your attunement give yourself the Mental/Emotional technique and send Distant/Absent healing to yourself and others.